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In the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985.

In the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985. 1,400 If the actual increase in total sea otters was 1,400 individuals between 1985 and 2005, how many new sea otters were added to the population (on average) each year In the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985. ANSWER: Correct There were approximately 2,700 otters in 2005 and 1,300 otters in 1985, for a difference of 1,400 otters. Part B If the actual increase in total sea otters was 1,400 individuals between 1985 and 2005, how many new sea otters were added to the population (on average) each year in the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985. 1, If the actual increase in total sea otters was 1,400 individuals between 1985 and 2005, how many new sea otters were added to the population (on average) each year? 70. Between the years of 1985 and 2005 the total number of sea otters: increased by. In the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985. 1400 If the actual increase in total sea otters was 1,400 individuals between 1985 and 2005, how many new sea otters were added to the population (on average) each year

The information gathered from the survey is used by federal and state wildlife agencies in making decisions about how to manage the sea otter—a keystone species that in turn influences the coast's ecological communities. Part A In the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985. The information gathered from the survey is used by federal and state wildlife agencies in making decisions about how to manage the sea otter—a keystone species that in turn influences the coast's ecological communities. Part A In the year 2005 there were approximately ____ more sea otters in total than in 1985. ANSWER In September, five hurricanes formed leading to a seasonal total nearly double the June-September average number of named storms. In only one other year (1933) had this many storms (17) formed by the end of September. The 2005 season eventually surpassed 1933 for the number of named tropical cyclones More time was spent forag-ing (30%) than on any other activity, and foraging bouts were longer than all other activities. Males interacted with females with pups (59%) and with single females (41%)

The California sea otters grew at an average rate of less than 2 percent per year during the last 10 years. Thus, there has been a painfully gradual increase in the population of southern sea otters and according to a 2017 counting, these otters are numbered around 3,186. There were about 474 stranded otters in 2016 There were 10 sea otters with focal enamel hypoplasia, containing a combined total of 31 teeth (0.10%). There was no significant gender difference due to the small sample of affected sea otters. All but incisor and second premolar teeth were affected across the otter population, with relatively uniform prevalence across affected tooth types

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  1. The semiaquatic otter species are shallow divers, while the sea otters dive to depths in excess of 100 m. The respiratory system is appropriately modified for deep diving. For instance, the tracheal length-to-width ratio is lower in sea otters than river otters, thus permitting more rapid and complete air exchange before and after a dive
  2. Many additional sea otters were infected with T. gondii and/or S. neurona, but the associated pathology was not considered severe enough to cause death. A total of 306 sea otters (57%) were seropositive for T. gondii and 244 (45%) were seropositive for S. neurona at a cutoff of ≥ 1:320 serum dilution
  3. The gold line is the median extent for 1981-2010: half of years had smaller extents, half had larger. (bottom) A graph of daily ice extent since 2005. Years 2005-2009 are light purple, the record-low year 2012 is salmon, other years for 2010-2014 are light green, and years 2015-2019 are blue. The 2020 daily extent line is in black
  4. The sea otter population within the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary is estimated to be more than 1,200. The at the Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is over 500. Russia. Before the 19th century there were around 20,000 to 25,000 sea otters in the Kuril Islands, with more on Kamchatka and the Commander Islands
  5. Over an ecosystem area of approximately 5.1 × 10¹⁰ m², the effect of sea otter predation on living kelp biomass alone represents a 4.4- to 8.7-teragram increase in C storage

Graph showing trends in abundance of sea otters in California, based on 3-year . conditions this year were very good, being more favorable than viewing conditions during the spring 2015 census (3.1 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 Number of otters (3-year average count), mainland / range wide. Linda J. Lowenstine, in Zoo and Wild Animal Medicine (Sixth Edition), 2008 Sea Otters. Sea otters in Alaska (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) are suspected to have developed saxitoxicosis (PSP), although in experimental studies they avoided contaminated prey items. 13,34 Clinical signs (other than death) and lesions were not documented. Domoic acid was suspected to be a major component of the Southern. USS Elliot (DD-967) was a Spruance-class destroyer in the United States Navy.Built by the Ingalls Shipbuilding Division of Litton Industries at Pascagoula, Mississippi, the ship was named for Lieutenant Commander Arthur J. Elliot II, USN (1933-1968), who as commanding officer of Patrol Boat River Squadron 57, was killed in action in the Republic of Vietnam on 29 December 1968

In comparison to cetaceans, sirenians, and pinnipeds, which entered the water approximately 50, 40, and 20 mya, respectively, the sea otter is a relative newcomer to marine life. In some respects though, the sea otter is more fully adapted to water than pinnipeds, which must haul out on land or ice to give birth From 1965 to 1990, seven sea otter translocations were made into historically occupied habitat, resulting in five self-sustaining populations. In 2015, those reintroduced populations accounted for approximately 30% of the nearly 150,000 extant sea otters and occupied more than 50% of the sea otter's historical range (Bodkin, 2015). This fact.

There was high demand for the furs that the Aleut provided from hunting. In May 1784, local Aleuts revolted on Amchitka against the Russian traders. (The Russians had a small trading post there.) According to what Aleut people said, in an account recorded by Japanese castaways and published in 2004, otters were decreasing year by year For example, the mean dive durations for young of the year Steller sea lions (0.8 min: Merrick and Loughlin 1997; Loughlin et al. 2003; 0.9 min: Rehberg 2005) and yearling animals (1.7 min, Rehberg 2005) were less than the cADL estimated using a DMR of twice RMR, and 95% of dives were shorter than the cADL estimated using RMR. Although, if. All existing sea otter, Enhydra lutris, populations have suffered at least one historic population bottleneck stemming from the fur trade extirpations of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. We examined genetic variation, gene flow, and population structure at five microsatellite loci in samples from five pre-fur trade populations throughout the sea otter's historical range: California. Mussel bed depth and average mussel lengths were 1.5 times lower in regions occupied by otters for >20 years than those occupied for <5 yrs. Diversity of mussel bed associated communities did not differ between regions; however, the total biomass of species associated with mussel beds was more than three-times higher where sea otters were absent Skull ossification and development data from skull specimens of male sea otters, Enhydra lutris kenyoni, collected from 1989 to 2011 that were used to categorize specimens into age classes as part of an investigation to refine aging criteria and methods for sea otters in Washington. Each specimen has an assigned accession number from the U.S.

In the year 2005 there were approximately more sea otters

  1. In 2019, commercial landings of Atlantic sea scallop totaled more than 60.6 million pounds of sea scallop meats and were valued at approximately $570 million, according to the NOAA Fisheries commercial fishing landings database. These figures may not match other agency sources of data due to confidential information
  2. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) forage primarily on benthic megainvertebrates (e.g. clams, crabs and sea urchins) in the shallow, littoral zone of the North Pacific Rim.Originally distributed from northern Japan to central Baja California in Mexico (), their numbers were significantly reduced from ~300,000 to less than ~2000 during the Maritime Fur Trade in the late 18th and 19th centuries, which.
  3. Introduction. Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) forage primarily on benthic megainvertebrates (e.g. clams, crabs and sea urchins) in the shallow, littoral zone of the North Pacific Rim.Originally distributed from northern Japan to central Baja California in Mexico (Fig. 1), their numbers were significantly reduced from ~300,000 to less than ~2000 during the Maritime Fur Trade in the late 18th and.
  4. The anthropometric data were taken on all people in camp, and many people were measured more than once per year over the years 2001-2006. Stature and weight have been measured by previous researchers and there is little to no change in the Hadza over the years ( Blurton Jones 2006 ; Hiernaux and Hartono 1980 ; Marlowe and Berbesque 2009 )
  5. Sea otters were five times more likely to interact proactively with the PBR than birds (LR, Omnibus χ 2 0.05, 1 = 53.861, P < 0.001), but bird behaviors were more elaborate than those of sea otters. There were 19 behaviors coded for sea otters (Figure 2, top) and there were 50 coded for birds (Figure 2, bottom)
  6. erals on the sea floor
  7. 79% of adults with diabetes were living in low- and middle-income countries. 1 in 5 of the people who are above 65 years old have diabetes. 1 in 2 (232 million) people with diabetes were undiagnosed. Diabetes caused 4.2 million deaths. Diabetes caused at least USD 760 billion dollars in health expenditure in 2019 - 10% of total spending on.

Ecology - Mastering Environmental Science - APES

They were estimated to number around 2,300 in 1998 and to be increasing between 2.4-8.4% per year. The IWC is undertaking an assessment of Antarctic blue whales at present. There have been no assessments of the pygmy blue whale sub-species to date. For more information about blue whales click here In 2016 there were 50,724 homeless people, an increase of 3,000 since 2011 (FEANTSA, 2017). Poverty in Italy was at its highest in ten years in 2017, with 5.1 million people living in 'absolute poverty' (R, 2017). 40% of homeless people have been living on the streets for more than 4 years (FEANTSA, 2017)

Amendment 3 (1985) was the first plan under the Striped Bass Act to include mandatory conservation measures. The Amendment implemented measures to protect the 1982 year class, the first modestly-sized cohort for nearly a decade. Some states elected for an even more conservative approach and imposed a total moratorium to protect the 1982 year class Impacts from COVID-19 restrictions, in force from April 6, 2020 were considered, whereby all commercial marine vessels with a capacity of more than 12 passengers were prohibited from engaging in non-essential activities, such as tourism or recreation; cruise ships with the capacity for overnight accommodations for 100 or more people were banned. There were more than 120 wind damage reports in western New England and eastern New York, where there were two storm-related fatalities. In addition, almost 400,000 customers lost power. The remnants of Hurricane Delta and a frontal system teamed up to produce widespread rainfall in the Northeast from October 12 to 14 Recovering species are often limited to much smaller areas than they historically occupied. Conservation planning for the recovering species is often based on this limited range, which may simply be an artifact of where the surviving population persisted. Southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were hunted nearly to extinction but recovered from a small remnant population on a remote. An average of 25-50 people are killed by landslides each year in the United States. The worldwide death toll per year due to landslides is in the thousands. Most landslide fatalities are from rock falls, debris flows, or volcanic debris flows (called lahars). Twenty-three people were killed, at least 167 injured, and more than 400 homes were.

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  1. The most significant change in the structure of ecosystems has been the transformation of approximately one quarter (24%) of Earth's terrestrial surface to cultivated systems. (See Box 1.1.) More land was converted to cropland in the 30 years after 1950 than in the 150 years between 1700 and 1850. Figure 1.1 Runoff and reservoir storage
  2. g to methane emissions; what methane lacks in volume it makes up for in potency
  3. 6. The Kowloon Walled City, which was demolished in 1994 to make room for a park, was once the most densely populated place on Earth. Upward of 40,000 people, crammed into roughly 200 tightly.
  4. The shift to small cars will cause an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 highway deaths over the next ten years. Bureaucracy. By now it should not be surprising that the size of the bureaucracy has also grown. Today, there are 230,000 more civilian government workers than in 1980, bringing the total to almost three million

• An estimated 138,231trout and salmon were caught (primarily Chinook salmon [44%] and lake trout [26%]). Trout and salmon harvest was estimated at 79,334fish, dominated by Chinook salmon (4 %) and lake trout 3 (23%). • Fishing effort directed at trout and salmon remained relatively stable for more than a decade, however, effor plastic production has increased more than 20-fold since the 1960s,1 to 407 million metric tons in 2015. 2 Production has grown so quickly, in fact, that virtually half of all plastics ever produced were manufactured within the last 15 years.3 As populations grow, poverty rates decline and consumptio

The explosion caused a 20-foot by 40-foot gash in the port (left) side of the ship. The explosion caused Cole to lose power and disabled all onboard communications assets. Seventeen sailors died in the explosion and more than 35 were injured. All the dead have been recovered. U.S. Navy Destroyer Attacked in Yemen @ Yaho Kelp canopies in this area have declined gradually from more than 10 hectares in 1989 and 1990 to less than 1 hectare annually since 1994 (Berry et al. 2005)(Figure 3). Figure 1 Floating Kelp Canopy Area on Washington's outer coast and the Strait of Juan de Fuca, 1989-2004 (reprinted from Berry et al. 2005 with permission from Nearshore. More than 30 crews from the community of 700 were trawling the sea for bowhead whales, cetaceans that can grow over 50 feet long, weigh over 50 tons and live more than 100 years

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105 160 cannot be determined from this graph Correct Part

The crash death rate is over three times higher in low-income countries than in high-income countries. 4 There were no reductions in the number of crash deaths in any low-income country from 2013 to 2016. 4 LMICs only account for 60 percent of the world's registered vehicles but more than 90 percent of the world's crash deaths. 4 Crash injuries place a major economic burden on LMICs. 6,7. Over nine years, 590 VPs were performed (Extended Data Fig. 1a, b) in a descending spiral profile from 4,420 m to 300 m above sea level (a.s.l.). An average of 75 VPs were performed per year from.

In 2002, more than 26,000 ethnic Vietnamese were counted in the Russian federal census. There were 13,000 Vietnamese immigrants in Russia in 2013, according to estimates from the United Nations Population Division. Many students and guest workers also migrated to then Czechoslovakia in the early 1980s During the 17th century, sea otters became a staple of the global fur trade. By 1914, there were only around 50 remaining in the wild. After the species was listed on the ESA, sea otters made a. Based on the most recent comprehensive survey in 2011, there were about 27,000 glaciers in Alaska. However, the number of glaciers is a misleading statistic. Scientists are more interested in total glacial land coverage as a measure. The number of glaciers is less important since large ones can split up into several as they retreat. The amount. Based on the most recent comprehensive survey in 2011, there were about 27,000 glaciers in Alaska. However, the number of glaciers is a misleading statistic. Scientists are more interested in total glacial land coverage as a measure. The number of glaciers is less important since large ones can split up into several as they retreat. The amount of area glaciers occupy in Alask For 2020, the average contiguous U.S. temperature was 54.4°F, 2.4°F above the 20th-century average, ranking fifth warmest in the 126-year period of record. The five warmest years on record have all occurred since 2012.. The annual precipitation total for the contiguous U.S. was 30.28 inches, 0.34 inch above average, ranking in the middle third of the historical record

Since 1932, there have been almost as many coup attempts in Thailand as there have been democratic elections: there were no less than 19 military coup attempts, 12 of them successful. In the most recent past, the military intervened into the country's politics in 1981, 1985, 1991, 2006 and 2014 While taking a closer look at the 2021 UAE population by nationality, there are people from more than 200 nationalities living and working in the country.Currently, the Indian population in UAE is the highest with 2.75 million, followed by Pakistanis with 1.27 million. The UAE has around 0.75 million Bangladeshi nationals, 0.56 million Filipinos, and 0.48 million Iranians The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of 27 member states that are located primarily in Europe. The union has a total area of 4,233,255.3 km 2 (1,634,469.0 sq mi) and an estimated total population of about 447 million. An internal single market has been established through a standardised system of laws that apply in all member states in those matters, and only those matters. It was more than 900,000 square miles less than the historical 1981-2010 average for that month (see Figure 1)—a difference three and a half times the size of Texas. All months have shown a negative trend in sea ice extent over the past several decades. The largest year-to-year decreases have occurred in the summer and fall months. 3, The rate of sea level rise is accelerating: it has more than doubled from 0.06 inches (1.4 millimeters) per year throughout most of the twentieth century to 0.14 inches (3.6 millimeters) per year from 2006-2015. In many locations along the U.S. coastline, high-tide flooding is now 300% to more than 900% more frequent than it was 50 years ago

cannot be determined from this 105 160 - Course Her

  1. imum each September. September Arctic sea ice is now declining at a rate of 13.1 percent per decade, relative to the 1981 to 2010 average. This graph shows the average monthly Arctic sea ice extent each September since 1979, derived from satellite observations. The animated time series below shows the annual Arctic.
  2. g observed since 2000 followed a period of rapid acceleration in the late 20th century. Starting in the mid-1970s, global temperatures rose 0.5 °C over a period of 25 years. Since the turn of the century, however, the change in Earth's global mean surface temperature has been close to zero
  3. This ensures more consistency with the numbers NCEI provides on a yearly basis and give more confidence in the year-to-year comparison of information. Another outcome is a published peer-reviewed article U.S. Billion-dollar Weather and Climate Disasters: Data Sources, Trends, Accuracy and Biases (Smith and Katz, 2013)

Tropical Cyclones - Annual 2005 National Centers for

Plastics have transformed everyday life; usage is increasing and annual production is likely to exceed 300 million tonnes by 2010. In this concluding paper to the Theme Issue on Plastics, the Environment and Human Health, we synthesize current understanding of the benefits and concerns surrounding the use of plastics and look to future priorities, challenges and opportunities 1985: Drilling 150,000 Years Deeper into the Ice. Ice cores extracted from Antarctic ice in 1985 showed carbon dioxide and temperature had gone up and down together in wide swings over the past 150,000 years, the same relationship that computer models suggested. Learn more: Core of climate history. 2005: Finding Really Old Ice and its Climate. Reptiles have repeatedly invaded marine environments despite their physiological constraints as air breathers. Marine reptiles were especially successful in the Mesozoic as major predators in the sea. There were more than a dozen groups of marine reptiles in the Mesozoic, of which four had more than 30 genera, namely sauropterygians (including plesiosaurs), ichthyopterygians, mosasaurs, and. The total anthropogenic radiative forcing over 1750-2011 is calculated to be a warming effect of 2.3 [1.1 to 3.3] W/m 2 , and it has increased more rapidly since 1970 than during prior decades. Carbon dioxide is the largest single contributor to radiative forcing over 1750-2011 and its trend since 1970 The Nazca Plate subducts east-northeast at a rate of approximately 67 mm/year 29. Thus, this region yet again experienced two more tsunamigenic earthquakes: the 2014 Pisagua M w 8.1 and the 2015.

Yet after 1995, the year sea otters arrived, surveys at 9 out of 10 standard urchin monitoring stations (monitored since 1984) demonstrated a 71% decline in sea urchins over 1 year, and by 1997, and so few sea urchins remained in the vicinity of Neah Bay that the fishery district was closed to commercial harvest by Tribal-State harvest. This article is more than 6 years old. Otters were near extinct in England but thanks to conservation while curlew sandpipers in Australia lost 80% of their number in the 20 years to 2005 Most of the world's sea otters reside in Alaska, but there has never been an assessment of long-term mortality patterns for this keystone predator. We examined data collected from 780 northern sea otter (Enhydra lutris kenyoni) carcasses recovered in Alaska from 2002 to 2012 to evaluate the causes of mortality and risk factors associated with death

(PDF) Behavior of Territorial Male Sea Otters (Enhydra

The value of M&A deals worldwide fluctuated greatly since 1985. A peak value of approximately 4.9 billion U.S. dollars was reached in 2007. Since then, annual deal values have risen and fallen. The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) occurred about 20,000 years ago, during the last phase of the Pleistocene epoch. At that time, global sea level was more than 400 feet lower than it is today, and glaciers covered approximately: 8% of Earth's surface 25% of Earth's land area 33% of Alaska Beginning about 15,000 years ago, continental glaciers.. Key findings from the 1990-2019 U.S. Inventory include: In 2019, U.S. greenhouse gas emissions totaled 6,558 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents, or 5,769 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalents after accounting for sequestration from the land sector. Larger image to save or print Larger image to save or print Emissions. approximately 4,000 kilometers of the Yellow Sea coastline. They reported a loss of approximately 65% of intertidal wetlands over the past 50 years. From the 1980s to the late 2000s, approximately 28% of intertidal wetlands were lost, which constitutes a 1.2% annual decline. Kuenzer et al. (2014

Video: How Many Sea Otters Are Left In The World? - Sea Otter

The Dental Pathology of Southern Sea Otters (Enhydra

communities, supporting more than 300 jobs in the area. 2004 Four island fox subspecies, the three in the park as well as Catalina island foxes, are listed as endangered by US Fish & Wildlife Service. 2004 First foxes are released back to the wild on SMI, where they have been missing for five years. 2005 Channel Islands National Park an Discussion. Previous reports have documented significant declines in varicella incidence in the United States since the varicella vaccination program was implemented in 1996 through the early years of the 2-dose program (1,3-8).During 1995-2010, data to assess impact of the varicella vaccination program were obtained from a varicella active surveillance project, which was discontinued in. Sea otter densities at each site (km −2) were measured as the number of animals counted during annual spring censuses (2001-2003 average counts for CC, 2003-2005 average counts for SN) divided by the area of suitable habitat (subtidal benthos between the mean low tide line and the 40-m isobath) The climate regime in the eastern Bering Sea has recently been dominated by a pattern of multi-year stanzas, in which several successive years of minimal sea-ice formation and warm summer temperatures (e.g., 2002-2005, 2014-2017) alternate with several years of relatively extensive sea-ice formation and cold summer temperatures (e.g., 2006-2013). This emerging climate pattern may be. The allocated volume is the specific volume of water allocated to water access entitlements for the reference year. In 2004-05, there were 223,556 water access entitlements in Australia with a total entitlement volume of 29,831 GL (Table 1.34)

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Some reports estimated the total economic loss from the Exxon Valdez oil spill to be as much as $2.8 billion. A 2001 study found oil contamination remaining at more than half of the 91 beach sites. Overall, two people were killed, 60 others injured, and the total damage from this particular storm was more than $200 million. May 12th The same storm system that pummeled much of southwest Oklahoma on May 11, 1982, continued into north Texas on the 12th

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The carcasses of more than 35,000 birds and 1,000 sea otters were found after the spill, but since most carcasses sink, this is considered to be a small fraction of the actual death toll In order to account for this, the age of otters less than 1 year old was included as a proportion of 1 year (e.g. the age of a three-month-old pup was denoted as 0.25 in the analysis). Models fitted with a parameter that assumes ILVs only affect asocial learning rates are known as additive models (because the asocial and social learning rate. Its second and fifth warmest years on record were 2014 and 2015 respectively. of tornadoes since 2005, with 100 hitting that year, 110 in 2008, and 97 in 2011. seen more than the average.

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The expanding reach of the FAA after 1985. Between 1985 and 2015, there were more than two dozen Supreme Court decisions in arbitration cases, virtually all of which expanded the scope of the FAA and restricted the ability of states to maintain laws to protect consumers and employees and the ability of individuals to resist costly and unfair. The quantification of individuality is a common research theme in the fields of population, community, and evolutionary ecology. The potential for individuality to arise is likely context-dependent, and the influence of habitat characteristics on its prevalence has received less attention than intraspecific competition. We examined individual diet specialization in 16 sea otter (Enhydra lutris.

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For example, in more recent decades the following can be seen: In the 1990s there were 358 spills of 7 tonnes and over, resulting in 1,134,000 tonnes of oil lost; 73% of this amount was spilt in just 10 incidents Predictable changes in sea urchin and kelp populations were associated with these various sea otter population levels and trends. In the mid-1980s sampling period, urchin biomass density was much lower at Amchitka and Adak than it was at Shemya and Attu (Fig. 1).By 2000, the urchin biomass density had increased substantially at Amchitka and Adak while remaining relatively unchanged at Attu and. Even gray whales have been found dead with plastic bags and sheeting in their stomachs. A recent study of harbor seals in the Netherlands found that more than 12% had plastic in their digestive system. 95% of Northern Fulmars studied in the North Sea between 2007 and 2011 were found to contain plastic, on an average 0.38 grams. This could equal. For every degree of warming, sea levels will rise by more than 2 meters in the next few centuries. The Earth's temperature has already risen 0.8 degrees C over pre-industrial temperatures. Jevrejeva 2011 also found increased rates of sea level rise, even if emissions were to stabilise at 490 ppm by 2070 following the scenario in RPC3PD (RPC2.6)

According to an ongoing temperature analysis conducted by scientists at NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), the average global temperature on Earth has increased by a little more than 1° Celsius (2° Fahrenheit) since 1880. Two-thirds of the warming has occurred since 1975, at a rate of roughly 0.15-0.20°C per decade The O2 is also rated at 2 MW, with twin 20-meter (65.6-ft) rotors sweeping more than 600 square meters (6,460 sq ft) of area below the surface, on the end of 18-meter-long (60-ft) articulating arms In New England, the total area fished (TAF) by trawling is 138,000 km 2, and 56% of the sample areas are fished more than once a year, so that the equivalent of 115% of the TAF is fished every year. In the Gulf of Mexico, the TAF is 270,000 km 2, 57% of the sample areas are fished more than once a year, and trawls sweep 255% of the TAF each. Many of these vessels can fish either mobile gear or fixed gear. There is a small number of purse seine vessels dedicated to herring and mackerel fishing. In the Pacific, there were close to 20 000 fishing licences from 1985 to 1995; the number declined abruptly during 1996-1998 and have been around 8 500 licences during 1998 and 2004 In 2020, carbon dioxide emissions in Russia amounted to approximately 1.48 billion metric tons of CO2, marking a decrease relative to the previous year For example, the individual years in 1986­-1990 are compared to the 30-year average 1971-2000, and the years in 1991-1995 are compared to 1976-2005. Check out this climate.gov article , written by our illustrious editor, Rebecca Lindsey, for more details on this rolling climatology approach